Tuesday, 31 October 2017

Work-Life Balance & Email

What did schools do before email? I started teaching in 2006 and already email was widely used. I was familiar with that, as email had been a common form of communication at university. However, it was not used at all when I myself was a student at school (pre-2002). It is not uncommon for teachers to get 30 to 40 emails day, and when I was a head of year, 60 or 70 emails a day was entirely possible.

I remember when I started at my new school (September 2016), that there was a brief discussion in a meeting... "Remember no emails after 6pm, or at the weekend, SLT need to be leading on that.". I recall thinking, that sounds like a good idea, but not fully appreciating how much of a difference it makes.

Teaching is all consuming; you can work every hour in the day, and still not get everything done. Likewise, your email inbox is rarely completely empty. There is a great temptation to sit down in an evening and try and 'clear a few' - although even this acknowledges that it may be impossible to ever conquer. These might be your working hours, but they are not the same for everyone. Some teachers will get up early and be working from 5am, some will stay late in school, others will up until 2am. I'm not suggesting you should work at any of these times, but some people choose to, especially if they want to spend time with their partner or children. There is a certain flexibility with working hours.

One issue is the fact that many teachers have email set up on their phone. This can be hugely advantageous, especially during the working day. I know if I send something urgent to our SLT, someone will respond near on instantly. I can also clear a number of emails on the train to and from work. However, the problem is if you have notifications set up (I don't on my phone - only on my iPad), you will be constantly distracted. If there are no guidelines on when emails can be sent, this can then become part of your evening, weekend and even holidays.

I set up a few Twitter polls recently:

I find it incredibly worrying that 5% of respondents send email over the weekend and expect a response. Also that 56% send, but don't expect a response - but is there a consideration about how those receiving the email feel or react?

Can they really just ignore it? Do they feel they have to 'just quickly reply'? They may do this while they are out for dinner with their partner, sat in the park with their child, or enjoying a hobby with a friend? Regardless of policy, if emails are being sent, some people will feel they need to reply. Having now experienced no emails outside of reasonable working hours for well over a year, I think far more schools should 'ban' email from 6pm to 7am, weekends and school holidays if they are serious about staff well-being.

I followed this up after half term:

It is clear that emails slowed down... but didn't stop. Nearly a quarter of teachers were getting 11 or more emails over their week "off". There is obviously complexity behind this data - some emails don't need responding to, some are from students, some might be from mailing lists.

Since tweeting these out, I received a number of DMs from colleagues on Twitter. These are some of the examples of emails sent in schools:
  • Information requests for students sent out at 2am in the morning
  • Staff meeting agendas sent out at 10pm on a Saturday night
  • SLT requests for information send out at 9am on a Sunday morning
  • Department data requests sent out during the holidays
  • Deadlines of 24 hours on emails sent at 8pm on a Friday
This is on top of all the 'general information' and 'all staff' (when they don't need to be 'all staff'!) emails sent during the evenings and weekends. 

How can anyone justify this?

This has a huge detrimental effect on work life balance. Teachers can never switch off, and even if they don't have their email direct to their phone or iPad - if they know these emails are being sent - and it seems part of their school culture -  they feel they need to check. When and why did we become this kind of profession? Instant replies are wanted for things which really could wait...

This can have a huge affect on the stress and anxiety levels of staff; it can make them feel guilty or inadequate when they spend time with family, friends, or on holiday. It also seems to be a competitive 'who is working the hardest?' culture - a dangerous feature of modern teaching.  

There is another way.

Your working hours may be late at night, or at weekends. That's fine; there is an element of flexible working in teaching in this respect. I also think it is not enough for SLT to just say "well don't check it". Most staff want to do their job well; they want to be efficient.

Delay Delivery

My old school used to have email setup through Outlook; it was very easy to 'Delay Delivery'. I used to frequently do this and set up for 8am arrival in inboxes, as I knew many staff checked their email around this time before going off to briefing or to register their form.


For Gmail, this is the ideal solution. It is a simple  add in for Chrome that allows you to send delayed messages (it does have a limit). This also has another new great function of pausing your email while you work on something important - see below for more on this. There is also now a new Boomerang app for your phone, so you can simply write emails in this to send later - even if you don't use as your main email app. 

Other options

Write it, leave it in your Draft folder, and then send when you get in in the morning (after 7am!).

This is important.

I did some reading around email, well being and work life balance while writing this blog. The first shocking statistic is that can take 20 minutes on average to refocus after being disrupted by an email. If you are marking and hear a 'ping', it may take you a considerable length of time to get back to concentration level you had before. If that email is received outside of school and triggers stress or anxiety, then it's impact may last a lot longer than 20 minutes.

It has been proven to be far more efficient to 'cluster' tasks, and so setting aside 2 or 3 occasions during the day to check and respond to emails is a much better work habit. However, the nature of schools doesn't always work this way - but perhaps the trial of slightly better habits may work? It doesn't help when you are stopped in the corridor and someone says, "I've just sent you an email..." - if you send it by email, it can obviously be replied to later in the day when I am not trying to prepare to teach my next lesson, discipline this student, mark this book, or just make a cup of tea!

Would you write better / politer / more useful responses if you were sat at a PC with time dedicated to emails, rather than rushing between a Year 9 and a Year 11 lesson on your phone? You may also not need to send that 'all staff' email about a lost mug, the whereabouts of a child who missed your lunchtime detention or the jammed photocopier if you wait until later in the day - those issues may have all resolved themselves! 

Another key bit of research is that people, even those with busy working lives, who checked their emails less (regardless of volume of email), were less stressed. Flipping between tasks (teaching and email responding) makes you less efficient at both, and naturally more stressed doing both - this has got to be a concern. Teachers, or other staff, who bombard colleagues with emails during the day are potentially effecting their performance in the classroom.

Finally, an incredible statistic from the NY Times found 6% of workers (not teacher specifically), checked their work email while they, or their partner, was in labour! 

  • Don't email after 6pm, before 7am, at weekends or holidays - it can wait. Even if it is not school policy, you may produce a butterfly effect. If your working hours mean you catch up on emails during this time, use technology to delay it's arrival.
  • Try small changes to your email habits - turn off notifications on your device, close your email browser window when marking, deactivate during holidays, 'cluster' your time.
  • Consider the implications of your email on the recipient - you don't always know the interruption, stress, guilt or anxiety your 'quick email' may be having.
  • Always think before you hit send - Do I need to make it an 'all staff' email? Do I need to send that email at all? What happens if someone forwards this email on? Have I conveyed my tone? Have I used the CC correctly? 
  • Would it just be better if I went to see the person face to face instead? 

Further reading:
  • https://hbr.org/2014/07/the-cost-of-continuously-checking-email
  • https://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/11/opinion/sunday/stop-checking-email-so-often.html
  • http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563214005810
  • https://www.teachertoolkit.co.uk/2012/10/10/ttkitthunks-pkainsworth/
  • https://www.teachertoolkit.co.uk/2015/11/19/emailprotocol/

Thursday, 26 October 2017

6th Form Study Skills: Learning & Note Taking

"A man maie well bring a horse to the water, But he can not make him drinke without he will." wrote John Heywood in A Dialogue Conteinyng the Nomber in Effect of all the Prouerbes in the Englishe Tongue. It was true in the 12th Century, and it remains so today. We cannot always get our students to do what we know is best for them, despite telling them over and over.

However, we must continue try, and do it from multiple approaches. I am looking forward to leading some CPD for staff on key principles of 'learning science', I introduce students to the Learning Scientists , I build the principles into lessons through my planning, I write MCQs for our department website and so on. 

I also offered to lead some 6th form assemblies, as I have seen in my own classes that there is a great needed to help students with the demands on the new A Levels. As I made clear to students:

  • You do not start with ‘easy’ material and work towards progressively harder material by the end of Year 13
  • You begin with challenging material, and work with more and more challenging material.
    • You will need to store a vast amount of knowledge in your Long Term Memory.
    • Your Working Memory is relatively small (5 to 7 things), while your Long Term Memory is vast.
    • You need to organise the information into schema in order to access or recall it.
    • You need to adopt a systematic approach to learning, rather leaving it chance.

I then took them on a brief overview of what we know about learning, and how our brains work. I left them with some practical suggestions, including adopting the Cornell Note Taking system. I wished someone had suggested it to me at university or 6th form. It fits with all the other knowledge we have now about effective learning. Why would you not use it? 

Their half term task was to go away and read this... but I will email it to them again next week as a reminder. And I have emailed to all staff to refer to in their lessons. I am going to spend 10 minutes of my first lesson back with 6th form writing CUE at the top of every margin, and drawing a line 5cm above the bottom of their page for summaries. 

There are bits I simplified, this was a 10 minute assembly, not an hour long lecture. However the affirmation I got from a colleague is when he pointed out to the students that it took him 28 years of classroom teaching to work out these principles of effective learning, and now they are pretty much contained in a 6 slide, 10 minute assembly. 

I'm not sure our students realise how lucky they are with what we now know about learning and try to share with them. 

Big thanks to Kim aka The Hectic Teacher and Steve D'Arcy for their help with this presentation

Tuesday, 24 October 2017

REVIEW: Exploring the Mass (TERE)

Exploring the Mass is a brand new resource, authored by Cardinal Vincent Nichols, published by the Teacher's Enterprise in Religious Education. It has been published in the Autumn 2017 and provides a high quality, versatile DVD and textbook for the study of the Mass. Here I offer some of my own thoughts on the two products. 

Firstly, I think it is vital that Catholic schools do not leave knowledge and understanding of the Mass to chance. As Saint John Vianney said, "If we really understood the Mass, we would die of joy.". We must aim for this! Catholic schools will often celebrate Mass - start of term, end of term, holy days of obligation... but to what extent do their students really know what is going on? Even for non-Catholic students, to know what is happening, will make it more interesting, even if they do not see it as an act of faith. I will be ensuring that my students will be watching this DVD before our next school Mass. 


The role of bishop is one of teacher, and Cardinal Nichols takes on this role for these two resources. He is relaxed, and the film juxtapositions the Cardinal celebrating Mass, alongside a Q&A sessions with students. While these questions are clearly 'set up', they do not feel overly contrived - indeed this is the view of the cynical adult, not the target audience! It's a format that work's very well, and keeps interest throughout. 

The explanations are perfect for students for whom this is targeted (KS2-3); the Cardinal uses clear, understandable language that is easily accessible to all. His answers are clearly planned out; thoughtfully and personally so. It is not all technical, we get a real insight into the faith of Cardinal Nichols. It's engaging and interesting. Even for an experienced RE teacher, and lifelong Catholic, I got new insights into the Mass; I enjoyed it!

As well as the straightforward language used, and additional explanations in the chapter transitions (for example,  Liturgy of the Word - God speaks to us), the setting helps ensure clarity and focus. Mass takes place in a simple chapel, with a small congregation. I have seen other resources that use the beauty of the Cathedral, with a large congregation. The focus on teaching is best set in this intimate setting. 

I really enjoyed the final section that includes some insightful and wise reflections on the importance and significance of the Mass for Catholics. This DVD is not just the 'what', but the 'why' and also beyond.

The DVD is accompanied by some helpful questions in a leaflet inside the box. These focus on recall of the key knowledge. It recommends watching the DVD in it's entirety before returning to each section, using the questions to guide note taking. I would use this approach in class without hesitation. 

Technically, the DVD is well shot, and the menu, graphics and transitions are of very high quality. I watched on a large 4K TV and the image quality was excellent. Subtitles would have been a nice additional feature for some EAL students, but there are ways around this for students that have a particular need. I realised that at the end, whether deliberate or not, a real variety of music had been used in the DVD reflecting different styles of Catholic worship, a nice touch. The DVD runs to 37 minutes; ideal for classroom use.


This was also written by Cardinal Nichols. Here is the comprehensive contents - it fits a lot into just 40 pages:

As with all TERE textbooks, the book is set out clearly and logically. It uses subheadings to break up the material into manageable chunks. It links very well to the DVD, and it would make sense to use the two together - for example the Gospel in the textbook matches that of the DVD.

It includes lots of helpful features, helpful to teachers: quick quizzes, clear and straightforward tasks, a few discussion points (or extension writing in my lessons!) as well as scripture based tasks and key summaries. The summary at the end of the book, the FAQ and glossary are particularly useful - especially for teachers who like key word tests!

It has a good mix of photos and artwork, that help link the story of Jesus to the celebration of the Mass. The DVD does not focus on this aspect, but the textbook helps to do this well, ensuring that important scripture is referenced.

How to use

For schools already studying the Way, Truth and Life:
  • This will perfectly compliment The Truth in Year 8 "The Mystery of the Eucharist".
  • This will be ideal to use before the first school Mass with Year 7, and perhaps again in The Way "The Sacraments"
  • It may be worth revisiting in Year 9 with The Life on "God's Call"
  • GCSE students may also find this useful when studying the Mass / formal worship, if time permits. [See note at the start about not leaving understanding of the Mass to chance - make time!]
  • Once you get familiar with DVD, you may use sections, rather than the whole film.
  • The textbook may be useful supplementary material, or useful for staff induction. If staff do not know what is going on, or why the Mass is so important, how can they convey this to the students? 
For other schools:
  • This could be used as at least half a term's work. The DVD and textbook work in such a way that even a non-specialist would be able to easily use. Is the Mass adequately covered in your Key Stage 3? If not, this will help hugely.
  • Non-Catholic schools could use as a resource to better understand the Catholic faith. Essentially, the Eucharist is the "source and summit" (CCC 1324), and so to understand the Mass, is to understand many of the fundamental beliefs of the Catholic Church. 
For parishes:
  • Catechises - for parents or young people, Confirmation, youth groups, RCIA...
  • The DVD is fantastic value for £35. It will get used over and over again in classrooms from KS2, even to KS5. Every Catholic school should have a copy. It is a privilege to intimately share the Mass with Cardinal Nichols. ***** (5/5)
  • The accompanying textbook provides a perfect, accessible companion. The activities and tasks enable the inexperienced teacher to help students digest and learn it's contents. A real bargain at £7. ***** (5/5)
  • I am unaware of any other resource, published recently, that comes anywhere close to presenting the Mass as clearly as this. 
DVD Preview & Ordering

Fine out more <here>

This new DVD offers a beautifully clear presentation of Catholic belief in the Eucharist. It will really engage the interest of young people as well as those who are helping them to deepen their faith in Jesus Christ. The Cardinal’s conversation with a group of students reveals their own understanding as well as their commitment to the Lord as they draw some profound insights from Cardinal Vincent. We see the young people’s participation in the Mass as the Cardinal leads them in worship and we see him explaining the Mass to them as a teacher of the faith. This high-quality film, with its accompanying textbook, will be a welcome resource to teachers and catechists and it could also be fruitfully used by parish groups or in the home setting.
Rt Rev Bernard Longley, Archbishop of Birmingham

Monday, 23 October 2017

CoRE Interim Report: My Response

In February, I presented some evidence to initial evidence gathering session for the CoRE (see <here>). In October 2017, they published an interim report, with a call for further evidence. I strongly urge RE teachers to take the time to read, reflect and respond to this (read the report and find the link to the questionnaire <here>). It feels like an opportunity for change, but one that may be missed. This is a personal response. 

The first question is about the introduction of a national entitlement statement. While I broadly agree in principle, this may be another name for a National Curriculum, and would certainly strengthen RE in areas of weakness, help alleviate inconsistencies and improve the subject's status, the implementation of this needs careful consideration. Some Free Schools and Academies have already put in place great RE curriculum - perhaps it is worth looking at them (and crucially their content... more of this later) before imposing such a statement? If we don't use good models of RE already in place, we have no hope of driving improvement.

Faith schools are more problematic. The Catholic Church's position is very clear, as outlined in a chapter I wrote for the new book, "We Need to Talk About RE" (see <here>):
If CoRE were to recommend a common baseline entitlement for all schools, including schools with a religious character, then it is very likely that the RE curricula of Catholic schools would already be in compliance with it. But since one of the conditions of the partnership between Church and state is the right of the bishops to set the curriculum in Catholic schools, then any statutory imposition of just such a common baseline is potentially highly problematic. Of course, given what has already be said, this will only be a problem in principle, not in practice. Nonetheless the principle is a fundamental one and a non-negotiable one for the Catholic Church in England. It is hoped that a way forward can be found that ensures outstanding Religious Education for all without backing the Bishops into a corner where they have no other option but to oppose something that, in every detail but one, they would otherwise welcome and support.
Therefore, such a NES, cannot be universally imposed. Some critics of faith-based education will highlight the issue with this and see it as a reason to try and eradicate the 'two-school system', but I feel to do so forgets the positive contribution that faith schools often to make to RE, especially for their students. I urge you read the full chapter, to understand the history, it's complexities and nuances.  

The questionnaire then outlines the proposed NES. For me, it remains problematic, open to interpretation, and seeking to please the sociological approach which seems to have become dominant in many RE debates (a focus on 'reality of belief', the 'religious landscape' etc). It also does little to eradicate the influence of PSHE, citizenship or sex education in RE. We cannot plan RE around 'what some people believe, or don't, in 2017'. For example, the Bible has been here for ~2000 years and had huge influence on our culture, history, art, literature etc. I think this needs to be central to any RE curriculum. 

The part of the initial response from the CoRE that is missing for me, is any kind of discussion about knowledge - what do students need to know? An attempt at this would be the single most important thing the commission could do. 

We actually have a start point with the GCSE Annex (see <here>).  It is worth being clear, this is not perfect. Some have claimed the writing was too hurried, others that all faiths had to conform to a Christian-based framework. However I would strongly argue that until it was produced, written down, set out... there was little debate about "What knowledge?" 

Curriculum design is not something that all teachers are expert in, nor is assessment. Many teachers have no idea what students should know when. Secondary colleagues often have no idea what students should know about religion when they arrive in Year 7. As such, a comprehensive overview from EYS to KS5 would be of huge benefit. KS4 and 5 is largely done, for the minute.

Yet we (the RE community) often fear making 'over simplified' or 'broad brush' statements - other subjects such as as science seem far more comfortable with this provisional knowledge. Therefore age related expectations, in regard to knowledge, would be helpful to map out this progression. It would ensure the complexity and diversity of religion and belief is accurately built upon. 

Knowledge is contested. However, what is clear, many RE teachers have a great deal of it. It allows them to have these very debates, and yet even dismiss the need to focus on knowledge in RE. Our greatest gift to students is the knowledge we have, how can we best ensure that it is passed on as effectively as possible? I am not sure it is this version of a NES. 

I would love to see the Commissioners sit down, with all their expertise, experience, knowledge and understanding of religion and belief, and set out a knowledge based curriculum, that teachers then help develop into Key Stage standards of attainment. I honestly think this is the best thing we could do for the students in our care. 

Monday, 16 October 2017

NEW BOOK: We Need To Talk About RE

There is always a great sense of satisfaction when you get a book in your hands - a book with your name on, or in. I remember the excitement when I first got my hands on my GCSE textbook - it was an amazing feeling. 

This one feels like a real professional affirmation, the fact I was invited to be part of the project and then allowed to write, what I consider a really important contribution, on the place of Catholic RE within discussion of reform. My extract is here: 
This chapter begins by briefly exploring the history of RE in Catholic schools as a context
within which its distinctiveness will be defined and is best understood. Then I explore how
the Catholic vision of good RE fits within the broader vision of RE held by the RE 
community as a whole in England, arguing that RE from a religious perspective brings an 
important breadth to what has always been a pluralistic discipline. Following from that, I look at the current contested areas within RE and consider how the Catholic RE community might respond to these threats and challenges, while spelling out those areas which would be non-negotiables beyond which Catholic RE could not pass without losing its authenticity. With all of this in mind, the chapter concludes by considering some possible futures for Catholic RE. In this section I argue for the importance for pupils in all schools of a study of religion which allows a deep theological engagement with at least one tradition, as is exemplified by Catholic RE. Such an engagement is the only one which allows for a proper grasp of historicity, nuance and complexity, all of which are essential skills in navigating a world of simplistic religious extremes.
I must also add that this chapter was co-authored, and I am very grateful to those who helped me put this together. You know who you are.

This book contains the thoughts and writings of many that I respect and admire in the RE world, although I admit, I don't always agree with. Healthy discussion and disagreement is useful for us in trying to improve the standard of RE in all schools. Here is an overview of who is included in the book:


The quotes on the back of the book should be enough for anyone who wants to get clued up on the current state of RE to get reading:

This diverse and accessible series of reflections provides an excellent route map navigating the complex terrain that is contemporary RE. It offers a range of radical solutions guaranteed to prompt debate about the future of the 'RE space' in a post-religious, post-secular contemporary world. (Alan Brine, Former HMI and Ofsted National Adviser for Religious Education)

This book, in the words of two of its authors, does the same as effective RE in classrooms. It offers 'demanding material... a framework for talk, thought, misconceptions and deep engagement' and a discussion of 'unsafe topics'. It is timely and informed and everyone who cares about RE should read it. (Dr Joyce Miller Associate Fellow, WRERU)

This timely book assembles huge amounts of wisdom and experience. It is a valuable addition to a growing literature on the place of RE in our schools. I strongly endorse the message captured in the Postscript : be absolutely clear about the purpose of RE and teach it well. The rest will follow from this. (Grace Davie, Professor emeritus, University of Exeter)

This book may not be for all, but I hope to have been part of something that offers a useful starting point for ensuring all students in the UK get the very best standard of RE teaching. It's too important for us not to get right.

I look forward to your views on my (our) contribution, and the book in general. 
We need to talk about RE.